LEONARD ŁUKASZUK, COOPERATION AND RIVALRY IN OUTER SPACE: LAW-POLICY-ECONOMY (WSPÓŁPRACA I RYWALIZACJA W PRZESTRZENI KOSMICZNEJ. PRAWO. GOSPODARKA. POLITYKA), TORUŃ, POLAND, 2012, PP. 530.
Para citar este artículo puede utilizar el siguiente formato:
Agnieszka Legucka: "Leonard Łukaszuk, Cooperation and Rivalry in Outer Space: Law-Policy-Economy (Współpraca i rywalizacja w przestrzeni kosmicznej. Prawo. Gospodarka. Polityka), Toruń, Poland, 2012, pp. 530." en Revista europea de derecho de la navegación marítima y aeronáutica, diciembre 2013, en http://rednma.eumed.net/law-policy-economy/
Abstract: Professor Leonard Łukaszuk is one of the main specialist on public international law of the sea. In his new book, printed in 2012 inToruń, he decided to analyze very specific and interesting subject: the cooperation and rivalry in outer space. In his opinion it is profoundly influenced (a) by the different, sometimes sharply completing, national interests of various – government and not-government – international actors, (b) the commercialization of the outer space, (c) the development of the new space technology. The interaction of these factors has been mostly destabilizing situation in security environment as well as its affects for the future development of the Earth. The book contains three parts: the space law, the policy of space, and third which is concentrated on economy and management of the space activity.
Keywords: Outer Space, Rivalry, Cooperation, International Public Law, Space Law, United States, China, Russia, United Nations.
It is part of the human nature to gain new spaces to live or to travel: land, water, air and finally outer space. Today without whole economic, financial, commercial activities in the outer space our life on Earth including aviation and communication in general, the Internet and satellite television, would not be possible. That is why presented book about cooperation and rivalry in outer space by outstanding space explorer professor Leonard Łukaszuk is so important. The author of this monograph introduces into crucial current problems of space policy, law, and economy – both of states and international organization in a comparative manner. He presents the results achieved thus far, selected problems arising from the exploration of the outer space in new geopolitical, scientific and technical, as well as commercial consideration. In cooperation and rivalry are involved countries and international organizations, i.e. the United States, the Russia, China, India, Japan, Israel, European Union and NATO. The author gives additional attention to the role played by United Nation and he proposes the eventual creation of new international organization, which would coordinate cooperation in the outer space more effectively.
The book consists of three parts. In the first part entitled ‘Space law’ professor analyzes the development of space law, which concerns hundreds of systems, agreements and conventions, both bilateral and multilateral. New regulations concerns such problems like cooperation in outer space, space rescue operations, the debris, responsibility for damage made by spacecraft, states activity on the Moon, the problems waste, etc. International Institute of Space Law is responsible to cover these regulations problems. The author examines future possibilities of development in space law. In his opinion the process of creation of the space law is the result of an international co-operation within United Nations system, including treaties prepared by Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), for example: The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (1967).
In the second part entitled ‘The policy of space: states and international organizations’ the author draw an opinion that in outer space we can observe rivalry and even conflict between restricted national policy made by governments and more open commercial actors, who wants to be involved in the different space projects. For example The Outer Space Treaty (1967) requires parties to authorize and supervise national space activities, including the activities of non-governmental entities such as commercial and non-profit organizations. Professor Łukaszuk is convinced that the 1991 – 2000 decade was focused on economic and commercial aspects of activities in space. Other tendency was close co-operation in the European Union in this field, especially within European Space Agency, which tries to develop a navigation system of its own. One of the aims of Galileo is to provide a high-precision positioning system upon which European nations can rely, independently from the Russian, Indian, Chinese systems.
The traditional spacepowers, USA and the Russian Federation are concerned on their own national interests. Sometimes they cooperate, but mostly they are rivals. Beginning from Space Race in 50th, and after militarization of space now they are trying to strengthen their position and security in the space. The author points out that in Russia a tendency has been visible to intensify cooperation with the USA in the initiative of common Earth’s rocket defense system to protect against asteroids and comets. Others actors have their own interests. China has a space program with an independent human spaceflight capability. Japan has been cooperating with the United States on missile defence since 1999. Tokyo is working on military and civilian space technologies to protect its security because China and North Korea have military programs, which represents a serious issue for Japan’s foreign relations. Also Brazil, India carries out their ambitious space exploration programmes. The international cooperation in this field is also joined by South Korea. Other important players active in space exploration are Brazil, Argentina and Canada.
In the third part of the book, ‘Economy and management of space activity’, the author gives very interesting and not explored before issue of commercialization the outer space. The finishing chapter concerns the connections between economic and scientific activities and protection of intellectual property rights. They are approximately 60 nations and government consortia that operate satellites, as well as numerous commercial and academic satellite operators, creating an environment that is increasingly congested. Only U.S. Department of Defence tracks over 22,000 man-made space objects in orbit, of which 1,100 are active satellites.
The reader will find in this book a lot of information concerning companies specializing in aerospace industry, trends in industry commercialization and the market of satellite observation of the Earth in connection with management of industry, water economy, land and sea, environment protection, material resources, and even construction projects. Questions raised here are important for international security. For example the accession to civil and military space technology in the process of the commercialization of the outer space activity. Professor is convinced that only transparency and openness between different players is fundamental for cooperation in the space policy. The book is also a compendium of different scientific approach to space law regulations, economic and technology development in this field, cultural and civilization effects of human activity in the outer space. I would recommend this book to all people who are interested in international relations, geopolitics, and security. [Recibida el 3 de septiembre de 2013].